Law and Economics No. 1 in Keuzegids!

Hello everyone,

We wanted to share some very good news about the Law & Economics Master programme with you: our programme has been rated as “the best in its field” by this year’s Keuzegids, a renowned list comparing all Master programmes in the Netherlands!

The Keuzegids concluded that our Master programme is the best Dutch programme in the field of Law & Economics. Moreover, our programme was rated as “good” and received an index score of 71 points.

For more information and the full results of the Keuzegids, see the PDF-file attached below and the following (Dutch) link.

Resultaten Keuzegids Masters 2019 -RGL

– Maurits

Referencing: A How-To Guide


In this blog post, I will talk to you about a feature of legal studies that can be boring, tedious, but also very helpful and useful: referencing!

Within the legal academic community, many types of referencing styles are used. This diversity can cause confusion and uncertainty amongst students, especially when their teachers tell them to adopt whichever style they like, “as long as you are consistent”.

In order to help you adopt a legal citation style, I will provide some guidance on legal citation in this blog post. Three of the most common types of legal referencing will be discussed: OSCOLA, APA and Bluebook. I will also give you some examples and links to extra information. Of course, you do not have to strictly adopt one of these referencing styles. However, since they are renowned and widely used, it would be recommendable to adopt one of these styles or a style similar to these!


OSCOLA is an abbreviation for the Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities. OSCOLA is used by most law schools and scholars in the UK, and has been adopted internationally as well.

The OSCOLA referencing rules have been updated in various editions, the most recent being the 4th edition. You can find the online version of the 4th edition here and a quick reference guide here.

A book is cited by: Author, Title (Edition, Publisher Year) page. An example of an OSCOLA book citation is: Gareth Jones, Goff and Jones: The Law of Restitution (7th edn, Sweet & Maxwell 2009) 55

European Union cases and legislation are respectively cited as follows:

Case C-176/03 Commission v Council [2005] ECR I-7879, paras 47-48

Council Directive 2001/29/EC of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society [2001] OJ L167/10


APA is a more general style of referencing, originating from the United States. APA is considered to be an easy-to-use and comprehensive guide, which makes citing any source easy. Useful guides for APA referencing can be found here and here.

The core components of an APA reference are: Author’s surname, initial(s). (Date Published). Title of source. Location of publisher: publisher. Retrieved from URL (if retrieved from an internet source).

An example of a book reference would be: Mitchell, J.A., Thomson, M. & Coyne, R.P. (2017). A guide to citation. London, England: My Publisher.

A journal article or European Union case would be cited as follows:

Mitchell, J.A. (2017). Citation: Why is it so important. Mendeley Journal, 67(2), 81-95

Case T-107/04 Aluminium Silicon Mill Products GmbH v Council of the European Union [2007] ECR II-669


The Bluebook is an US format of citation, which has become an international standard of referencing. It contains rules that prescribe how to cite a variety of legal documents.

The Bluebook provides detailed rules for various types of legal sources. Thus, there is no general formula that applies to each type of legal source. Therefore, it is wise to consult a Bluebook guide when using this citation style. Examples of guides are: Mary Miles Prince – The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, and this guide.

For example, a book would be cited by: Volume number, Author’s full name, Title, Page/section/paragraph cited (Edition Year of publication). An example is:

9C Charles Alan Wright & Arthur R. Miller, Federal Practice and Procedure §2552 (3d ed. 2008)

Examples of citations of European Union cases and legislation are:

Case C-89/95, Joined cases Ahlström and others v Comm’n, 1993 E.C.R. I-1307 para. 64

Commission Communication No. 528/2 of 14 January 2011, 2011 (C 11/1)


– Maurits

Lecture William Kovacic

On the 11th of January we had a magnificent guest lecture. We had the honour of being lectured by William Kovacic. He was the Commissioner of the United States Federal Trade Commission from January 4, 2006 to October 3, 2011.

The title of the lecture was “Competition in the Broadest sense: Michael Pertschuk’s Chairmanship of the Federal Trade Commission 1977-1981“. The presentation focussed on the FTC’s efforts in the 1970s to adopt a conception of competition law that encompassed a wide range of values beyond economic efficiency and involved efforts to restructure concentrated industries, and we derived lessons relevant to modern debates about what competition agencies should do. Moreover, it focussed on considerations of institutional capacity and political oversight as factors to be considered in designing and operating a competition agency.

The way William Kovacic lectured and how he dragged his audience into his story was fantastic. We think we speak for the entire master programme if we say that this was a lecture we will never forget.

Seeing things in perspective

One year. I wondered how that could make a difference at the start of this Master programme in September. When I look back at the last 4 months, it has been an enlightening rollercoaster where I feel I gained more knowledge than I did in 3 years of Bachelors.

My interest in the field of Law and Economics has grown enormously. I’ve now written in-depth papers about doctrines that I didn’t know existed before. We had 6 courses on different subjects already, for instance one on the regulation of network sectors (gas, electricity, telecommunications and water) and the theories behind that. Whereas I thought this would be the least interesting course of the programme, for me this turned out to be the subject where I happily opened my book for. And let me tell you, that was an advantage because there was a lot to read in the book! Not that I didn’t like the other courses, quite the opposite actually. I feel very at home in this diverse Master programme.

As a fresh, just-finished-my-Bachelor-at-UU-student, I couldn’t have been more wrong about my expectations on how much one can learn in a year. We’re almost halfway there and we’ve gained so much applicable knowledge. I realised this some weeks ago when I was reading an article for my parttime job. This was full of technical terms about competition law and regulation. Definition after definition came up and I understood them all. I could understand the whole framework of a 45 page academic paper. Phrase after phrase I could link it back to the lessons or concepts we had learned in the 6 courses. I was astouned by my own comprehension.

I am very happy with my choice for this programme and I’d say: let the rollercoaster continue!

– Annabel

Change of scenery

Being a master student has been a challenging – more than I thought it was going to be – and rewarding experience so far.

I came from working in a Peruvian law firm in which I started as an intern back in 2011 and then as an associate in 2014 when I got my bachelor’s degree. So basically I was used to handling workload and pressure to a certain extent (I wouldn’t say perfectly but I managed to survive and enjoy it as well).

So when I entered the L&E program at our University and then moved to the Netherlands, I assumed that this was going to be like a “sabbatical” year for me and thought to myself: “if you have already managed to handle studies, internship, and then handled everyday work, the masters would be a piece of cake”. I was pretty relaxed about it, I’d say like in vacation mode.

Well, I was certainly wrong.

The first challenge was to get used to English speaking classes. It just took me a week to get the vibe going and everything was ok. Then, English reading materials (huuuge amounts of case law and papers). Again, I needed a week to adjust and it was fine. After that, economics in English, which really gave me a hard time since my background in econ was pretty basic (so I needed books, slides, online courses, even YouTube videos) and required a couple of weeks to get the rationale behind it and fully understand the classes.

Then, suddenly, midterm exams. My vacation mode was just a two-week fling and I realized that I had to step it up if I wanted to get through the program satisfactorily.

Thus, I realized I had to be as sharp as I was back in Lima, but I also found the brightside of it since I felt I was actually gaining a lot of experience and knowledge from subjects which I only covered superficially when I did my bachelor. I’ve been learning and understanding the economics behind competition law and market regulation, and -in general- receiving tools that I would definitely use when I get back to work in Peru.

All in all, I feel that the effort I did by coming here was totally worth it.

– Jorge

Seminar Supervision of Markets

In the 3rd seminar of the course Supervision of Markets, we were offered an opportunity to experience the EU decision-making process when designing an EU supervisory authority. In this way, we tried to apply the knowledge and understanding of the materials read and heard during the lecture. We formed a few groups, in which we tried to design an EU supervisor in accordance with the preferences of the party that we represented and in light of the considerations that they have learned via the lecture and in the reading material. The groups that tried to make a plan for an EU agency were (1) the European Parliament; (2) the European Commission; (3) the Council of the European Union; and (4) a group of academics criticising points and leading the dicsussion.

This seminar was thought of by Mira Scholten, the programme coordinator. It was interesting to see how the group of academics tried to keep everything on track when the discussion got heated. Every group represented other stakeholders in the process of designing the supervisory agency. For instance, the Council of the European Union represented the 28 Member States and their sovereignty. We have learned a lot about European procedures by experiencing them ourselves and we think this is the most effective way of teaching students how things go in ‘real’ life. It is, at least, a seminar that we will not soon forget!

Here are a few pictures of the groups at work

Xmas Thesis Market

Last week we had a Xmas Thesis market at the beautiful university library. For the ones wondering: it was an informal meeting with all supervisors in the programme to discuss ideas and possible topics for our thesis. It was interesting to hear the professors from the Law and Economics and the European Law programme talk about their interests and fields of research. We feel like this contributed enormously to choosing a subject of our own that we were comfortable with and wanted to  thorougly explore.

An impression:

WhatsApp Image 2019-01-28 at 21.12.44


Hi there!

The purpose of this blog is for you, fellow (or potential) applicant, to have a benchmark on the life of a master student in general, and the Law and Economics Program in particular. Thus, you will be more prepared (and aware) to the new challenge that you’re about to begin: as you’ll learn during the Program, information is key to an efficient market outcome.

For reaching that purpose, we have tried to cover every subject related to the masters program: from housing issues (first advice for you, internationals, do not underestimate the power of the housing market), to academic topics (how the program is divided, which are the courses, professors, how to address your concerns) and – of course – student life (where to study, eat, drink, among others).

Now, who are we? Essentially we are the class of 2018-2019 of the Law and Economics master program. To the most extent possible, the content of this blog will be produced (or contributed) by most of the students of the program.

Of course, as things don’t run by themselves (yet), the space is managed by four of us students: Annabel Kingma, Maurits De Munck, Riva Bagully-Hawley and Jorge Contreras. As you will further notice, we represent a demographic sample of the program and, why not, of Utrecht: half Dutch, half international. So we intend to assure that this diversity background is also reflected in this blog.